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Chapter 14: Mutations, DNA Repair, and Cancer

Page history last edited by Maria Chiaffarano 13 years, 5 months ago

In the first section of this page, you will write a daily summary of that day's class.  For example in  your chapter 2 blog, your first entry should be titled 9/3/10.  You should then write a one or two paragraph summary of that day's lecture, outlining the major points.  In the second section, you are required to add two items (link to a website, video, animation, student-created slide show, student-created PowerPoint presentation) and one journal article pertaining to a topic in this chapter.  A one-paragraph summary must accompany each item describing the main idea and how it applies to the lecture topic.  Please see the PBWorks help guide for assistance embedding video and other items directly in the page.  I will also produce a how-to video on using tables to wrap text around items and other useful tips.  Please see the syllabus for organization and grading details.


A.  Daily Blog

Blog for Lecture (submitted 2/6/11):


In Lecture, we talked about the many different types of mutations that can be caused in genes.  There is a point mutation which affects only a single base pair within the DNA.  Base substitution is a mutation that involves the substitution of a single base in the DNA for another base.  Silent mutations do not alter the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide, even though the nucleotide sequence has changed. The genetic code is degenerate, that is, more than one codon can specify the same amino acid. Therefore, silent mutations can occur in the third base pair of the codon without changing anything. 


A missense mutation is a base substitution that changes a single amino acid in a polypeptide sequence. A missense mutation may not alter protein function because it changes only a single amino acid within a polypeptide that is typically hundreds of amino acids in length.  Sickle cell anemia is an example of this kind of mutation because there is a genetic mutation in the hemoglobin gene in which sickle shaped red blood cells are less able to move smoothly through capillaries.  This disease can be very painful or even fatal. 


A nonsense mutation involves a change from a normal codon to a stop or termination codon.  This causes it to be shorter and most likely nonfunctional.  A frameshift mutation is the additon or deletion of nucleotides that are not in multiples of three nucleotides. They shift the reading frame so that different amino acid sequences occur downstream from the mutation. 




B.  Useful Materials


DNA Mutation (submiteed 2/6/11)




This YouTube video describes the different types of mutations and the possible affects that they could have on genes, proteins, and as a big picture, an organsim.  It talks about point mutations, frameshift mutations, and missense mutations. 






Tumor Growth (submitted 2/6/11):




This YouTube video talks about cancer and the causes of it.  Cancer occurs when cells divide uncontrollably.  This can occur if the cells or genes are mutated.  Certain genes that can be mutated that will lead to cancer are the tumor repressor gene and the proto- oncogene.   Certain cancers are known as benign, meaning that they stay in one area, affect one tissue, and aren't of big concern.  Other cancers can be malignant, which is dangerous for the body and involving many tissues. 






PubMed article (submitted 2/6/11): 




This article describes gene regulation and the importance of genes and their relationship to mRNA.  This article describes an experiment designed to test certain relationships between the genes and the effects they had on the mRNAs.  Also, B-cell function is related to type 2 diabetes. 



Comments (1)

Derek Weber said

at 12:00 am on Feb 16, 2011

Please see my comments from Chapter 13 in regard to the chapter summary.

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