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Chapter 16 Blog: Simple Patterns Of Inheritance

Page history last edited by Kathryn Addabbo 13 years, 5 months ago

A. Daily Blog

 

This chapter was focused on genetics. Everything from sex linked traits to blood types to the work of Gregor Mendel.  Mendel is known as the father of genetics. He studied pea plants for 8 years to determine inheritance patterns and how they existed. He used pea plants because they had a limited amount of characteristics and were easily grown in a short amount of time. Rather than using humans, which would be controversial and take a long time to study. He differentiated between genotype (genetic makeup) and phenotype (physical appearance). He discovered genes, which are the genetic determinants of the traits he studied. 

 

Genes are in chromosomes, which carry the DNA organisms need to survive. Locus (plural: loci) are known as the area in which genes are found on the chromosome. It was also discussed that random alignment during metaphase caused independent assortment. In other words, what one chromosome did meant nothing to the other.

 

Pedigrees are used to determine the causes of different traits and why they are passed in that specific way. There are 23 pairs of chromosomes, and 22 are known as autosomes. The other pair is a sex chromosome. Mutations to these 22 autosomes are serious, not as much so for the sex chromosomes. A person can be a carrier for a genetic disease and not display any symptoms. However, different inheritance patterns change that. Codominance is when both dominant and recessive alleles are displayed at the same time. Incomplete dominance is a blending of those alleles. For example, mix red (RR) and white (rr) flowers and pink flowers will be the result (incomplete dominance). Whereas an example of codominance would be seeing both red and white on the flowers.

 

Humans have a pair of chromosomes determining sex. XX is a female and XY is a male. However, that is not the case for all organisms. Birds and some fish display the use of the ZW system: ZZ is male and ZW is female. Some creatures use neither system. In bees, unfertilized eggs become males while fertilized eggs become females. This means that males are haploid and females are diploid. 

 

B. Useful Materials

 

This video talks about codominance, specifically in chickens. Codominance is displaying traits of both alleles (both are visible). 

 

This video is about fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and why it was such a good choice for experiments during the early genetics age. Fruit flies have easily recognizable traits and reproduce quickly. This was helpful for scientists, and they were used frequently in experiments.

 

 

This article talks about Huntington's disease. Huntington's is an example of a dominant human disorder. Symptoms usually begin later in life, but the more it is passed down from generation to generations, the earlier the symptoms become prevalent. 

Huntington's disease

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