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Chapter 16 Blog: Simple Patterns of Inheritance (Philip)

Page history last edited by Philip Wang 13 years ago

In the first section of this page, you will write a daily summary of that day's class.  For example in  your chapter 2 blog, your first entry should be titled 9/3/10.  You should then write a one or two paragraph summary of that day's lecture, outlining the major points.  In the second section, you are required to add two items (link to a website, video, animation, student-created slide show, student-created PowerPoint presentation) and one journal article pertaining to a topic in this chapter.  A one-paragraph summary must accompany each item describing the main idea and how it applies to the lecture topic.  Please see the PBWorks help guide for assistance embedding video and other items directly in the page.  I will also produce a how-to video on using tables to wrap text around items and other useful tips.  Please see the syllabus for organization and grading details.

 

A.  Daily Blog

In this chapter, we learned about the simple patterns of inheritance. Gregor Mendel was a monk who made a breakthrough in science on the subject of inheritance. He studied seven characters that could be found in simple garden peas that each existed in two variants. He allowed the peas to self-fertilize and he also carried out cross-fertilization. When he followed the pattern of a monohybrid cross, he determined the law of segregation. The law of segregation is that two alleles of a gene segregate during the formation of eggs and sperm so that every gamete receives only one allele. When he followed the pattern of a dihybrid cross, he determined the law of independent assortment. The law of independent assortment is that the alleles of different genes assort independently of each other during gamete formation. Genotype is the genetic makeup of an organism, while phenotype is a description of the traits that an organism displays. Alleles are alternative versions of the same gene. There are Punnett squares, which can be used to predict the outcome of crosses. A testcross is conducted to determine if an individual displaying a dominant trait is a homozygote or a heterozygote, homozygote meaning that the alleles are the same and heterozygote meaning they are different. The chromosome theory of inheritance explains how the steps of meiosis account for Mendel's laws of inheritance. Each gene is located at a particular locus on a chromosome. Sometimes, inheritance patterns in humans are determined using a pedigree analysis. Sex is determined by differences in sex chromosomes. Recessive X-linked traits are more likely to occur in males. Recessive inheritance happens because of a loss-of-function mutation. In a dominant/recessive relationship, the heterozygote has a dominant phenotype because 50% of the normal protein is sufficient to produce that phenotype. Incomplete dominance occurs when a heterozygote has a phenotype that is intermediate between either homozygote. This happens because 50% of the functional protein is not enough to produce the same phenotype as a homozygote. Mutant genes are the reason for inherited diseases in humans and most of the time, their effects are pleiotropic. The gene affects several different aspects of bodily structure and function. Codominance is when both alleles are expressed in a same individual. Pattern baldness is a sex-influenced trait that is dominant in males and recessive in females. Phenotypes can also be influenced by environment.

 

 

B.  Useful Materials

This video is a song about Gregor Mendel and the experiments he conducted.

In the song, the monks sing about the process he went through to determine his laws.

They sing about how if you have a dominant allele, you will be able to predict the outcome of the child three times out of four to be dominant.

But if you have a recessive allele, then it would be different.

 

This is a video that teaches about phenotypes.

It explains that your phenotype comes about from an interaction between genes and environment.

Some phenotypes, like height, are determined mostly by genes.

Other phenotypes, like weight, are determined mostly by environment.

 

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=is-disease-inheritance-more-random 

This is an article that explains a new finding in genetics.

Sometimes, cells randomly deactivate one of a pair of alleles, one from the father and on from the mother.

This could help explain why some children inherit diseases while other do not.

 

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