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Chapter 20 (Emad)

Page history last edited by Emad Madha 11 years, 12 months ago

In the first section of this page, you will write a daily summary of that day's class.  For example in  your chapter 2 blog, your first entry should be titled 9/3/10.  You should then write a one or two paragraph summary of that day's lecture, outlining the major points.  In the second section, you are required to add two items (link to a website, video, animation, student-created slide show, student-created PowerPoint presentation) and one journal article pertaining to a topic in this chapter.  A one-paragraph summary must accompany each item describing the main idea and how it applies to the lecture topic.  Please see the PBWorks help guide for assistance embedding video and other items directly in the page.  I will also produce a how-to video on using tables to wrap text around items and other useful tips.  Please see the syllabus for organization and grading details.


A.  Daily Blog


This chapter is all about genetic technology. The first section of the chapter talks about Gene cloning. 

Gene cloning is useful in understanding genetics. Genomics is the study of the genome. Functional genomics is the study of the proteome and gene expression, and structural genomics is the mapping of the genome. Gene cloning is useful because it provides researchers with the gene of interest to study. The process of gene cloning is by taking a gene of interest, and putting in a "vector" to be uptaken by a bacterium, and copied. The vector is a piece of circular DNA that is cut by restriction enzymes, and the gene of interest attaches to the vector. Sometimes the process is unsuccessful, in the case of a vector recircularizing without the gene of interest. The chapter also describes the processes of gel electrophoresis, used to determine the mass of a DNA fragment, and PCR, a method of replicating DNA.

The second section is about genomics. The differences between functional and structural genomics were described above. To study genomics, large pieces of DNA are cloned, and BACs (bacterial artificial chromosomes). These are vectors that much bigger, in order to compensate for larger cloning. This is used to tell gene location on a chromosome. Another thing discussed is the sequencing of DNA. The process of dideoxy chain termination is explained, where nucleotides that end a sequence will be built, and based on their location and nucleotide type, the researchers can tell the sequence of a DNA strand. In this section, microarrays are also explained. These determine proteome and gene expression. A plate of genes is covered with DNA reverse transcribed from a cell's mRNA. The DNA will hybridize with specific DNA on the microarray, displaying what protein is made by that cell and relatively how much of it.

The third section is about biotechnology. Biotechnology is used to help humans. The section describes humulin, insulin produced by bacteria to be used by diabetic patients. This is an example of using live organisms to for human benefit. Bioremediation is described, in which bacteria is cultivated to metabolize toxic chemicals. The section talks about transgenic, or genetically modified organisms, and how they're made via gene replacement or gene addition. Also, the process of reproductive cloning is described, in which the nucleus of a somatic cell is put into a anucleated oocyte, and placed in a surrogate till birth. DNA fingerprinting is described, and how individuals have different genomes, so DNA fingerprinting is a reliable forensics tool. Also, gene therapy is described, specifically the case of SCID, and the treatments of correcting ADA problems in leukocytes.


B.  Useful Materials


Here we have Dr. Nerdosaurus rex (I don't know man, this guy kind of annoys me) describing gene cloning. He talks about the vectors and recombinant gene technology. Starting with the restriction enzymes, he talks about the recognition of the vector cutting site and gene of interest cutting site. The gene of interest he uses as an example is the ampR gene, and how its a selectable marker, by talking about how the colony that grows had the original cell up take the vector successfully.


A short sweet video. Here, the process of DNA fingerprinting is described. The narrator describes using gel electrophoresis on the sample of suspect DNA and from the crime scene. The video shows the restriction enzyme cutting up the DNA, the DNA loading into the gel, and the electric field being run. The video shows improper pipetting, because the same tip is used for both samples. Tsk tsk, video, tsk tsk.


Environmental risk assessment in GMO analysis

In this paper, the risks of GMO foods is assessed. The abstract describes how the risks can be calculated qualitatively and quantitatively. Unfortunately, only the abstract is available, but the idea behind the paper is quite interesting. The paper provides a mapping of the possible risks derived from GMOs. These are focused on the risks of gene transfer, effects on biodiversity, resistance developing in organisms, and the effects on the nontarget organisms.


Comments (1)

Derek Weber said

at 2:17 am on Apr 2, 2011

haha, he is a bit grating.

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