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Chapter 20 Blog (Maria)

Page history last edited by Maria Chiaffarano 13 years, 3 months ago

In the first section of this page, you will write a daily summary of that day's class.  For example in  your chapter 2 blog, your first entry should be titled 9/3/10.  You should then write a one or two paragraph summary of that day's lecture, outlining the major points.  In the second section, you are required to add two items (link to a website, video, animation, student-created slide show, student-created PowerPoint presentation) and one journal article pertaining to a topic in this chapter.  A one-paragraph summary must accompany each item describing the main idea and how it applies to the lecture topic.  Please see the PBWorks help guide for assistance embedding video and other items directly in the page.  I will also produce a how-to video on using tables to wrap text around items and other useful tips.  Please see the syllabus for organization and grading details.

 

A.  Daily Blog

Blog for Chapter 20

  • Recombinant DNA technology is the use of laboratory techniques to isolate and manipulate fragments of DNA.

  • Gene cloning - the process of making multiple copies of a gene
    •  used to obtain large amounts of the DNA that encodes a particular gene
    • used to obtain large amounts of the gene product
  • Plasmid and viral vectors are used in gene cloning.
    • Used to obtain recombinant DNA
    •  a vector and chromosomal DNA are cut with restriction enzymes
    • DNA fragments bind to each other at their sticky ends
      • The pieces are then linked together by DNA ligase
  • Cloning is achieved when:
    • Recombinant vector is introduced to bacterial cell
    • Cell replicates the vector and divides (produces cells
  •  DNA library – collection of recombinant vectors; each has a particular piece of chromosomal DNA
    • cDNA is made from mRNA
    • If DNA inserts are derived from cDNA, this is a cDNA library
  • Gel electrophoresis – uses an electric field that causes macromolecules to pass through a gel matrix in order to separate them.
    • Typically separates according to charges, sizes, and masses
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is another common technique to make many copies of a gene.
    • Primers are used that flank the region of DNA to be amplified
  • Genomics is the study of genomes as whole units. For genomics, large fragments of chromosomal DNA are cloned into vectors such as BACs.
    • One goal of genomics is to make a contig
      • Contig -collection of clones that cover a contiguous region of a chromosome
        •  This is a type of mapping—determining the relative locations of genes or other DNA segments along a chromosome 
  • The dideoxy method of DNA sequencing uses ddNTPs to determine the base sequence of a segment of DNA
  • Functional genomics is aimed at studying the expression of a genome.
  • An important technique used in functional genomics is a DNA microarray that contains a group of spots, each with a specific type of DNA
    • used as a hybridization tool to study which genes are transcribed into mRNA from a particular sample of cells
  • Biotechnology is the use of living organisms, or the products of living organisms, for human benefit.
    • Example:  microorganisms can be genetically engineered to produce human products such as insulin
  • Bioremediation  - Microorganisms are also used to reduce pollutants in the environment
  • Transgenic organisms, also called genetically modified organisms, are made via gene replacement or gene addition.
  • Transgenic livestock can be genetically engineered to produce human hormones in their milk.
  • The Ti plasmid in Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been used to produce transgenic plants such as Bt corn, which produces its own insecticide 

 

B.  Useful Materials

 

Plasmid Cloning (submitted 3/13/11):

 

 

This video describes the process of plasmid cloning.  It shows diagrams/video of the process.  The video talks about how generally a cloning site has three elements: the region where foreign DNA can be inserted, the replication origin, and the antibiotic resistant gene which in this case is ampicillin.  DNA fragments to be cloned are introduced and inserts itself into the plasmid.  Recombinant plasmid contains the DNA that is to be cloned. 

 

 

 

PubMed Journal Article (submitted 3/20/11):

Molecular Cloning 

This article talks about GDP and how it plays an important role in energy metabolism and nutrition metabolism. The article includes coding sequences and cDNA libraries.  Recombinant CsGDP was expressed and purified from E.coli.  Western blot analysis was used and confirmed that GDP was expressed.  The article talks about some terms and bacteria that we have read about in the book and discussed in lecture. 

 

 

 

 

 

Microarrays (submitted 3/13/11):

 

 

The above video talks about microarray experiements.  It explains that DNA from the plant without the virus and the plant with the virus form a more stable form of DNA known as cDNA (complementary DNA).   The cDNAs of both plants combine.  They are then used on the microarray chip for the experiment. 

 

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